The music arranger is amazed that this piece of music was published in 1860! This arrangement for flute and two acoustic guitars has a plays back tempo of 58 dotted quarter note (crotchet) beats to the minute in the realisation. The movement in ABA (Ternary form) which was very much the standard form during the romantic period. Composers needed to follow the conventions of their time to ensure the patterns of their music were readily recognized by audiences. The A section is in D and the B section in F. The repeat does not sound in the playback. There has been some re-scoring but not re-writing of the original material. This is an excellent piece for developing 3 v 2 playing which is such a characteristic element of Spanish and music based on Spanish models. The music editor suggests practicing the music slowly in the first instance so that all rhythmic shapes and patterns are secure. The writing of Gottschalk is strongly influenced by Chopin. As the repetitive element in the movement is strong there is an opportunity to explore the tonal range and dynamics in a performance. The music editor suggests that this movement along with much of Gottschalk’s music is worth discovering particularly in arrangements where the playing level allows ready access to the music. Individual parts for the three instruments are appended to the full score. The small ornamental notes – acciaccaturas or crushed notes in the flute part but not the appoggiatura do not sound in the realization. The two acoustic guitar parts are available as accompaniments and can be downloaded as mp3 files at tempi of Accompaniment (1) 63 Accompaniment (2) 60 and Accompaniment (3) 57 dotted quarter note (crotchet) beats to the minute. Louis Moreau Gottschalk (1829 – 1869) was an American composer and pianist born in New Orleans who spent most of his performing career touring and giving concerts in what was a very hard working life. Manchega originates as a concert étude for piano – an etude in music is a study. Such movements are intended to improve and demonstrate technique and in the context of the original arrangement was intended to demonstrate the composer’s virtuoso piano playing. He was often referred to as the greatest pianist from the “New World.” Chopin, Liszt and Alkan were great admirers of his talent. His compositions established him as one of the first identifiable American composers. In his music it is possible to hear a mix of American Creole, African-American and European music traditions. His early works in particularly are imbued with the sounds that he heard in his youth in Louisiana. The syncopated nature of his music anticipates many of the characteristics of later American ragtime and jazz music.