A movement with beauty, shape and a sense of space. The imitation principle is understandably strong in a work composed, at a time that Schumann was intent on restoring rigour and confidence to his own compositional process. For players a secure and even technique is needed to play this relatively short movement. Whilst this music references the past there is a romantic twist or two in the harmonic language. A tempo of 76 quarter note (crotchet) beats to the minute is used in the organ realisation. Trills begin on the note and the pattern is shown in the ossia stave in bar 7 where the trill is notated. Understand that the melodic and rhythmic shapes of the ornaments need to be played consistently throughout the movement. The trills do not sound in the organ realisation. Schumann’s Canonic Studies were composed in 1845 for pedal piano and subsequently arranged for piano duet / piano four hands by Georges Bizet. There are also other versions for solo piano, two pianos and string quartet.